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Lunia (Hindu traditions) in India

Lunia (Hindu traditions)

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Lunia (Hindu traditions) in India map

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Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
3,166,000 Hindi Hinduism 0.00 % 0.00 %   

Lunia (Hindu traditions) in India

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Introduction / History
The Lunia of India are also called Jhumaria Parmer, Nunia, Sambhri and Sambhri Chauhan. They have been salt makers in the past.

The name Lunia comes from Lun or Nun meaning moist and is the name for sea salt. They say they are descended from the Kshatriya. The Lunia look at themselves as superior to the Dhobi, Dhanuk, Nai and Kahar but inferior to the Brahmin, Bania and Rajput. They regard themselves equal to the Thakur, Gadaria, Teli and Lodh. Hindu society though classes them as Sudra, the lowest of the four castes of peasants. They speak in Hindi and read and write in Devanagari. In West Bengal they speak Khotta and in Bihar, the language is Maithili.

Where are they located?
They live in Uttar Pradesh. They live in eastern and central districts of places like Lucknow and Kanpur and crime is common where they live. They live in Bihar too and a small number are in West Bengal where they are classed as a Scheduled Caste. This is advantageous to them.

What are their lives like?
The Lunia do such work as farm work, building roads, railways and digging wells and other construction work. Many are farmers on small plots of land they own. There are a few of them in government and private occupations while some are doctors and lawyers. Some are political leaders.

The Lunia eat meat provided they have enough money but cannot eat beef because of their Hindu religion. They eat cereals like wheat and rice and have seasonal vegetables. Men (not women) drink alcohol and have tobacco too. The literacy level is less than the national average so there is a need for the gospel in oral form. Poverty can be an obstacle to education. They use family planning and traditional and modern medicine. They are given electricity and clean drinking water. There is a lot of debt among them to shopkeepers and moneylenders.

The Lunia are endogamous which means they marry only among their sub-caste or subgroup. Both adult and child marriages take place. The bridegroom goes to the home of his bride, marries her and they live in the home of his parents. Usually marriages are done by negotiating. Divorce and marrying again are allowed.

When the father dies, the oldest son is in charge of the family. Sons and daughters inherit the property of their parents equally. The widowed mother gets some money if she does not marry again.

The opinions of women are listened to but the final say is from the men. The Lunia women do the housework. They collect firewood and take part in rituals and social and religious matters.

The Lunia have a regional association in Kanpur and Delhi called the Rajput Maryada Sabha that looks to promote their needs to the government.

What are their beliefs?
The Lunia are Hindus and worship Shiva and Durga as their main god and goddess. They worship other gods and goddesses too. Ancestors are also worshipped. They celebrate festivals such as Diwali and Holi. Varanasi is a main pilgrimage place. Brahmin priests perform birth, marriage and death rituals. The deceased are cremated but children less than five years old are buried. Birth and death pollution periods take place for a set time.


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Prayer Links
Global Prayer Digest: 2015-08-23
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Country: India
Continent: Asia
Region: South Asia
Persecution Rank:11 (Only top 50 ranked, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
10/40 Window: Yes
Population in Country:3,166,000
Largest States:
Uttar Pradesh (1,800,000)Bihar (1,222,000)
West Bengal (71,000)Madhya Pradesh (38,000)
Jharkhand (20,000)Maharashtra (3,900)
Uttarakhand (2,600)Odisha (1,700)
Assam (1,600)Tripura (1,400)
Total States on file:17
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Ethnolinguistic Map:University of Texas or other map
  Peoples [3]
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People Name in Country: Lunia (Hindu traditions)
People Name General: Lunia (Hindu traditions)
Alternate People Names:
Jhumaria ParmerKharwat
ROP3 Code: 112789
Joshua Project People ID: 17391
Indigenous: Yes
Population in Country: 3,166,000
Population all Countries: 3,268,000
Least-Reached: Yes
Affinity Bloc: South Asian Peoples
People Cluster: Hindi
People Name General: Lunia (Hindu traditions)
Ethnic Code: CNN25g
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
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Primary Language: Hindi (1,862,000 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): hin    Ethnologue Listing
Secondary Languages:
Bhojpuri (932,000)Awadhi (104,000)
Maithili (102,000)Bengali (68,000)
Kanauji (40,000)Magahi (24,000)
Bagheli (7,100)Chhattisgarhi (3,000)
Bundeli (2,300)Garhwali (1,600)
Note: Only 10 largest secondary languages listed
Total Languages: 23
Religion [4]
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Primary Religion: Hinduism
Major Religions:
Buddhism0.00 % 
Christianity0.00 %(Evangelical: 0.00 %)
Ethnic Religions0.00 % 
Hinduism100.00 % 
Islam0.00 % 
Non-Religious0.00 % 
Other / Small0.00 % 
Unknown0.00 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent0.00 %
Protestant0.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic0.00 %
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Few evangelicals and few who claim to be Christians. Little, if any, history of Christianity.
Least-Reached: Yes
GSEC Status:Level 2   Less than 2% Evangelical. Initial (localized) church planting within past 2 years
Bible Translation Status
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Bible Portions: 1806-1962
New Testament:
Complete Bible: 1818-2000
Possible Bible Sources: Forum of Bible Agencies
 World Bible Finder
 World Christian Resource Directory
 Gospel Go
Ministry Resources [7]
Audio RecordingsMegaVoice Audio Bible and Stories
Audio RecordingsAudio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio RecordingsOnline New Testament (FCBH)
Audio RecordingsOnline Scripture (Talking Bibles)
Audio RecordingsStory of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project ...
Film / VideoA Beautiful Hope (
Film / VideoA Pilgrimage (
Film / VideoAasha - Hope (
Film / VideoCoconuts (
Film / VideoCreation to Christ (
Film / VideoFathers Love Letter
Film / VideoFollowing Jesus (India, JF Project)
Film / VideoGod's Story Video
Film / VideoHaqeeqat Episode 6 (
Film / VideoJesus Film: view in Hindi
Film / VideoMagdalena (Jesus Film Project)
Film / VideoMy Last Day (Jesus Film Project Anime)
Film / VideoRivka (Jesus Film Project)
Film / VideoStory of Jesus for Children (JF Project)
Film / VideoTen Virgins (
Film / VideoThe Final Prodigal (
Film / VideoThe Hope Video: View in Hindi
Film / VideoThe Price of Life (
Film / VideoYeshu Satsang (
GeneralBible Visuals
GeneralFour Spiritual Laws
GeneralGod's Simple Plan
GeneralGot Questions Ministry
GeneralYeshu Samaj
Mobile AppDownload Bible from Google Play Store
Text / Printed MatterBible
Text / Printed MatterBible: Hindi Holy Bible
Text / Printed MatterBibles, Bible League
Text / Printed MatterChrist for the Nations
Text / Printed MatterEasyBibles
Text / Printed MatterEasyBibles
Text / Printed MatterHindi Bible
Text / Printed MatterInternational Bible Society
Text / Printed MatterOneHope resources for children and youth
Text / Printed MatterOnline Bible (Bibles India)
Text / Printed MatterWorld Missionary Press Booklets
Ministry Activity
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Data Notes
Data Sources

Lunia (Hindu traditions) in India

Global                 Global
  Affinity Bloc             Global  
People Cluster
    Hindi     South Asia    
      Lunia (Hindu traditions) India    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Lunia (Hindu traditions) in India          
      Religion Language  
      Hinduism     Hindi  
    All Religions                              

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