People-in-Country Profile

People Selector:
Print version:
Step 1 - Select a Country:   Send us your updates!
Step 2 - Select a People:  

Hmu, Northern in China

Hmu, Northern

Send us a photo of this people.  [1]

Hmu, Northern in China map
Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
2,079,000 Miao, Northern Qiandong Ethnic Religions 0.30 % 0.25 % Not available Not available   

Hmu, Northern in China

Profile Text
Submit Profile Text:

The Northern Hmu are a linguistic distinction within the large, official Miao nationality in China. Their autonym is Hmu. "Miao" is a Chinese name. There are three Hmu language groups, of which Northern Hmu is the largest.

Northern Hmu is a part of the Eastern branch of the Hmongic linguistic family. It contains at least seven dialects, some of which may also qualify as distinct languages. An orthography was introduced by the government in the 1950s, but it has never gained widespread acceptance among the people.

The Chinese have despised the Hmu for centuries. The Chinese called the Hmu "men-dogs," believing they had tails. Stories were circulated that when the Hmu were born, their feet were cauterized to make it impossible for them to get tired.

Perhaps the greatest Hmu festival is the annual Dragon Boat Festival. Legend has it that at one time an evil dragon lived in a palace in the depths of the Qingshui River. Occasionally he would rise up to cause destruction among Hmu communities. An old man swam to the bottom of the river and set fire to the dragon's palace.

When a Hmu dies, a shaman "opens the road" by giving directions to enable the soul of the deceased to reach heaven after a long journey. He says, "When you come to the snow mountain, don't fear the cold. When you come to the door of heaven, an old man guards it and will not let you in. Tell him who you are and all about yourself, and he will allow you to enter."

The gospel has never taken root among the Northern Hmu. F. B. Webb commenced Protestant mission work at Panghai in 1896. In 1898, CIM missionary W. S. Fleming and the first Hmu convert, Pan Xiushan, were murdered. Thirty-two Hmu "Christian inquirers" were "seized and beheaded without trial or defense." This caused great harm to the advance of Christianity. M. H. Hutton described the cool reception he received at a Hmu village 14 years later: "Some of the men began to curse my men for leading us to their village. They said they did not want the foreigner nor his Gospel, for some years ago, they said, all those who had anything to do with the Gospel Hall were killed." Hutton later reported that "work is steady, with families coming to Christ several at a time." By 1934 he had completed his translation of the Black Miao (Hmu) New Testament. Today only about 50 believers near Kaili "know Hutton's Black Miao writing. Hymns are still sung from the 1928 hymn book."

View Hmu, Northern in all countries.

Prayer Links
Global Prayer Digest: 2009-06-05
Global Prayer Digest: 2011-07-08
  Submit Update:
Country: China
Continent: Asia
Region: Northeast Asia
Persecution Rank:43 (Only top 50 ranked, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
10/40 Window: Yes
Total Provinces on file:1
Location in Country:Approximately 1.6 million Northern Hmu are concentrated in eastern Guizhou Province and areas of northern Guangxi. The main center for the Northern Hmu is the city of Kaili. Others are located in southeast Guizhou. Scattered pockets are also found in southwest Guizhou and in Longlin County in northwest Guangxi.
(Source: Operation China, 2000)
Submit Map:
Ethnolinguistic Map:University of Texas or other map
Linguistic Map:Ethnologue language map
  Peoples [3]
Submit Update:
People Name in Country: Hmu, Northern
People Name General: Hmu, Northern
Alternate People Names:
Black MiaoChientung Miao
East Guizhou MiaoHei Miao
Hmong, Northern QiandongHmu Northern
Miao, Qiandong NorthernNorthern Hmu
Northern Qiandong Miao
ROP3 Code: 114110
Joshua Project People ID: 18499
Indigenous: Yes
Population in Country: 2,079,000
Population all Countries: 2,079,000
Least-Reached: Yes
Affinity Bloc: Southeast Asian Peoples
People Cluster: Miao / Hmong
People Name General: Hmu, Northern
Ethnic Code: MSY47a
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
Submit Update:
Primary Language: Miao, Northern Qiandong (2,079,000 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): hea    Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Religion [4]
Submit Update:
Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions
Major Religions:
Buddhism0.00 % 
Christianity0.30 %(Evangelical: 0.25 %)
Ethnic Religions94.50 % 
Hinduism0.00 % 
Islam0.00 % 
Non-Religious5.20 % 
Other / Small0.00 % 
Unknown0.00 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent100.00 %
Protestant0.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic0.00 %
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Few evangelicals and few who claim to be Christians. Little, if any, history of Christianity.
Least-Reached: Yes
GSEC Status:Level 2   Less than 2% Evangelical. Initial (localized) church planting within past 2 years
Bible Translation Status
Submit Update:
Bible Portions: 1928-1937
New Testament:
Complete Bible: None Reported
Possible Bible Sources: Forum of Bible Agencies
 World Bible Finder
 World Christian Resource Directory
 Gospel Go
Ministry Resources [7]
Audio RecordingsMegaVoice Audio Bible and Stories
Audio RecordingsAudio Bible teaching (GRN)
Film / VideoThe Big Picture Story Bible (Indigitube. ...
Ministry Activity
Register Ministry Activity:
Networking: Visit for networking possibilities.
Description: Register your ministry activity among this people group. Contact the Adopt-A-People Clearinghouse and Unleashed for the Unreached to learn about others that might be focused on this people group.
Data Notes
Data Sources

Hmu, Northern in China

Global                 Global
  Affinity Bloc             Global  
People Cluster
    Miao / Hmong     Northeast Asia    
      Hmu, Northern China    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Hmu, Northern in China          
      Religion Language  
      Ethnic Religions     Miao, Northern Qiandong  
    All Religions                              

Direct link: