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Dudekula in India

Dudekula

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Dudekula in India map

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Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
8,300 Telugu Islam 0.00 % 0.00 %   

Dudekula in India

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Introduction / History
Dudekula are numerically a small community. They are known by other names such as "Pinjari", "Bhai", "Panjakuttai", and "Panjari". The other synonyms recorded by Thurston (1909) are "Ladaf" and "Nurbash". All these names are recorded at the time of census taking exercises and are found to be the corrupted forms of "naddaf" (a cotton-dresser) and "nur-baf" (weaver). In Telugu, the state language of Andhra Pradesh, "dude" means cotton and "ekuta" means cleaning. Hence they are locally called the Dudekula, the cotton cleaners and mattress makers. They are mentioned as "Mohammadan caste of cotton-cleaners, rope and tape makers" [Francis Thruston: 1909].

Where are they located?
Dudekula, in Andhra Pradesh are distributed in the districts bordering Tamil Nadu such as Gudiatham, Amburu, Thiruttani, Puttur ad Chittoor. They are found in large numbers in the villages of Regallu, Domalacheruvu, Kallur, Mangalepeta, Kalikiri, Rompicherla, Arakonda and Nayanapakala of Andhra Pradesh. Telugu is their mother tongue and it is used for communication at home and with outsiders. They also use the Telugu script. The personal name giving pattern of Dudekula is similar to the Hindus.

What are their lives like?
The Dudekula community is endogamous. They are further divided on lineages such as Amburollu, Macharla, Gudiyathamollu, Nagurollu, Kallurollu, Ratollu, and Palemollu. Persons belong to a lineage are considered as brothers and sisters ("dayadulu") and marriage alliances among them are not made. For example, Dudekula with the Ratollu surname cannot marry among themselves. Hence for marriage alliance they go to Amburollu which is treated as "menarikam". Thus, the Dudekula follow exogamy based on surname. This type of alliance that includes the dropping of parallel cousin marriages, is a Hindu practice, but is followed by the Dudekulas. They marry cross cousins: father's sister's daughters (FSD) and mother's brother's daughters (MBD). As a result they are looked down upon by other Muslims. To overcome this, now they are adopting the customs and manners of the more Islamised groups.

What are their beliefs?
The Dudekulas are Muslims by religion and profess the folk version of Islam. As a rule they do not have family, clan, village deities, the way the Hindus have and pray in the name of one god Allah. But they are affiliated to the Muslim saints (pirs) of the nearby dargah. To observe Muharram festival, the "muzawar" is selected from their own community. To officiate over their marriage and death rituals a clergy (hazarat) from the Syed Muslim sect is engaged. The weekly congregations meet on Fridays and are led by the Hazarat. The sermon (bayan) is conducted in Urdu or Arabic and later it is translated into the local language Telugu, since the Dudekula do not understand the Urdu or Arabic. They regularly visit the Muslim shrines (dargahs) on pilgrimage. As has been already stated, the Dudekula consider the saint Penugonda Baba, i.e. Faqruddin, their patron saint and attend his annual funeral ceremony every year. Apart from this they also go on pilgrimage to the dargahs of Nagore-e-Sharief at Nagore, Tabrialm Pasha at Trichy to take vows or pay their offerings. When they are there they offer the Fathiha the ritual of reciting the first page of the Quran in the name of the saint and also offer food to the poor at the dargah en masse.

What are their needs?
Dudekula were originally Hindu who converted to Islam a few generations ago. Till a few years ago they vacillated between the two religious traditions. Of late they have come under total Islamic ritual, tradition, customs and manners. Because of their poverty and also the un Islamic customs they practiced, they had a low status. By adopting Islamic customs now they are drawing a better status. The urge to claim higher status has turned the younger generation to learn Urdu and Arabic. Their women have begun observing seclusion rules, dress code and have dropped the Hindu custom of wearing "kumkum" on their forehead. Though quite a few of their rituals were Hindu, they are now renaming them with Urdu terms but still observe them. They have dropped observing the puberty ritual for the girls. The role of maternal uncle has also dispensed with. They have also adopted the practice of parallel cousin marriages. As a result the clan exogamy has been abandoned. Now-a-days marriages are settled and observed as per Islamic tradition. Both Dudekula men and women have accepted modern education and have occupied jobs in different fields. All these have helped the Dudekula elevate their status in the society.

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Country: India
Continent: Asia
Region: South Asia
Persecution Rank:15 (Only top 50 ranked, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
10/40 Window: Yes
Population in Country:8,300
Largest States:
Andhra Pradesh (3,500)Telangana (3,300)
Tamil Nadu (900)Odisha (400)
Maharashtra (100)Puducherry (80)
Karnataka (60)
Total States on file:8
   
 
Maps
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Ethnolinguistic Map:University of Texas or other map
 
  Peoples [3]
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People Name in Country: Dudekula
People Name General: Dudekula
Alternate People Names:
BhaiDaldi
LaddafMusalman
MuslimNoor Basha
Noor-BashNurbash
PanjiPanjikotti
PanjikuttiPanjukotti
Pinjaraडुडेकुला
ROP3 Code: 111997
Joshua Project People ID: 16749
Indigenous: Yes
Population in Country: 8,300
Population all Countries: 8,300
Least-Reached: Yes
   
 
Affinity Bloc: South Asian Peoples
People Cluster: Telugu
People Name General: Dudekula
Ethnic Code: CNN23d
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
   
 
Language
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Primary Language: Telugu (8,100 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): tel    Ethnologue Listing
Secondary Languages:
Kannada (90)Odia (80)
Tamil (80)Urdu (Unknown)
Total Languages: 5
   
 
Religion [4]
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Primary Religion: Islam
Major Religions:
Buddhism0.00 % 
Christianity0.00 %(Evangelical: 0.00 %)
Ethnic Religions0.00 % 
Hinduism0.00 % 
Islam100.00 % 
Non-ReligiousUnknown 
Other / Small0.00 % 
Unknown0.00 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent0.00 %
Protestant0.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic0.00 %
 
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
   
 
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Few evangelicals and few who claim to be Christians. Little, if any, history of Christianity.
Least-Reached: Yes
GSEC Status:Level 1   Less than 2% Evangelical. Some evangelical resources available, but no active church planting within past 2 years
 
 
Bible Translation Status
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Bible Portions: 1812-1966
New Testament:
1818-1989Audio
Complete Bible: 1854-2002
Possible Bible Sources: Forum of Bible Agencies
 World Bible Finder
 World Christian Resource Directory
 Gospel Go
 
 
Ministry Resources [7]
Audio RecordingsMegaVoice Audio Bible and Stories
Audio RecordingsAudio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio RecordingsFathers Love Letter
Audio RecordingsOnline New Testament (FCBH)
Audio RecordingsOnline Scripture (Talking Bibles)
Audio RecordingsOral Bible stories in Telugu
Audio RecordingsStory of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project ...
Film / VideoFollowing Jesus (India, JF Project)
Film / VideoGod's Story Video
Film / VideoJesus Film: view in Telugu
Film / VideoMagdalena (Jesus Film Project)
Film / VideoMy Last Day (Jesus Film Project Anime)
Film / VideoStory of Jesus for Children (JF Project)
Film / VideoThe Hope Video
Film / VideoThe Pearl of Great Price (Indigitube.tv)
GeneralBible Visuals
GeneralFour Spiritual Laws
GeneralGods Simple Plan
GeneralGot Questions Ministry
Text / Printed MatterBible-in-Your-Language
Text / Printed MatterBibles, Bible League
Text / Printed MatterEasyBibles
Text / Printed MatterEasyBibles
Text / Printed MatterInternational Bible Society
Text / Printed MatterOneHope resources for children and youth
Text / Printed MatterWorld Missionary Press Booklets
 
 
Ministry Activity
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Data Notes
Data Sources
 
 

Dudekula in India

Peoples
               
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People Cluster
       
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    Telugu     South Asia    
     
People-Group-Across-Countries
   
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      Dudekula India    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Dudekula in India          
      Religion Language  
      Islam     Telugu  
    Global    
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Direct link:  http://legacy.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?rog3=IN&peo3=16749