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Han Chinese, Hakka in Malaysia

Han Chinese, Hakka

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Han Chinese, Hakka in Malaysia map
Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
1,833,000 Chinese, Hakka Ethnic Religions 12.00 % 9.20 %   

Han Chinese, Hakka in Malaysia

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Introduction / History
Hakka speaking Chinese are the sixth largest Chinese dialect spoken among Chinese in Malaysia. Originally, the ethnic Hakka trace their ancestry to the early immigrants who came from the various provinces of Southeastern China. The early immigrants were from northern China. They had migrated to become sojourners in the southern provinces between the 4th and 18th centuries. Thus, they are called Hakka, Kechia, or Khek, which means "guest people" in Chinese. Although the Hakka dialect may contain elements from both Mandarin and Cantonese, it is a distinct language in its own right.

Hakka speaking Chinese are widely dispersed throughout Malaysia usually in more rural areas. Chinese speaking Hakka can be found in the states of Kedah, Negri Sembilan, Perak, Pahang, and Sabah.

What are their lives like?
The early Hakka settlers in the 18th and 19th century were gold-miners, tin-miners, and cash crop farmers. They were also proprietors of Chinese medicine shops and tailors. Today, with the rapid socio-economic changes in Malaysia, they work in a variety of professions. They are businessmen, lawyers, doctors, tour operators, and also factory workers.

The Hakka, a very distinct group of people, are regarded as very conservative, honest, hardworking, and independent.

A traditional Hakka family would include a husband and wife, their married sons with their wives and children, and daughters, if unmarried, all under one roof.

What are their beliefs?
Most of Hakka community consider themselves Buddhists. But what they generally practice is the same Chinese religion of the other dialect groups. Their religion is actually a collection of ancient beliefs and rituals that incorporated elements of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism passed down through generations. Most Hakka households have an icon of the warrior deity Guandi (a deity renowned for his loyalty, righteousness, courage, and sense of brotherhood) continuing a practice of the early immigrants, they often pray to Guandi for divine power to stay united.

Like the Chinese of other groups, the Hakka typically fear dying outside of their own homes. After all (they reason) how can their spirit be expected to find its way back to where it can be cared for? That's why you'll find very sick Hakka people checking out of the hospital and moving back home before they die. A small percentage of the Hakka are Christian.

What are their needs?
Rapid socio-economic changes in Malaysia are driving many Hakka to live away from their communities. They want good education, higher wages, and a better lifestyle. These same socio-economic changes may also lead to changing recognition, or lack thereof.

Pray that resourceful and committed believers will be enablers to the Hakka in their search for a better life. At the same time, pray that the Hakka might see God's love in these enablers and that His love would flow back to their own communities.

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Country: Malaysia
Continent: Asia
Region: Asia, Southeast
Persecution Rank:46 (Only top 50 ranked, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
10/40 Window: Yes
Location in Country:Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Selangor, Sabah, Sarawak: scattered, especially in all major towns.
(Source: Ethnologue 2016)
  Peoples [3]
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People Name in Country: Han Chinese, Hakka
People Name General: Han Chinese, Hakka
Alternate People Names:
Han ChineseHokka
ROP3 Code: 103691
Joshua Project People ID: 12054
Indigenous: No
Population in Country: 1,833,000
Population all Countries: 44,593,000
Least-Reached: No
Affinity Bloc: East Asian Peoples
People Cluster: Chinese
People Name General: Han Chinese, Hakka
Ethnic Code: MSY42a
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
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Primary Language: Chinese, Hakka (1,833,000 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): hak    Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Religion [4]
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Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions
Major Religions:
Buddhism26.00 % 
Christianity12.00 %(Evangelical: 9.20 %)
Ethnic Religions47.00 % 
Hinduism0.00 % 
Islam0.00 % 
Non-Religious15.00 % 
Other / Small0.00 % 
Unknown0.00 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent52.00 %
Protestant28.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic20.00 %
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Evangelicals have a modest presence.
Least-Reached: No
GSEC Status:Level 2   Less than 2% Evangelical. Initial (localized) church planting within past 2 years
Bible Translation Status
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Bible Portions: 1860-1995
New Testament:
Complete Bible: 1916-2012
Possible Bible Sources: Forum of Bible Agencies
 World Bible Finder
 World Christian Resource Directory
 Gospel Go
Ministry Resources [7]
Audio RecordingsMegaVoice Audio Bible and Stories
Audio RecordingsAudio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio RecordingsOnline New Testament (FCBH)
Audio RecordingsOnline Scripture (Talking Bibles)
Audio RecordingsOral Bible stories in Chinese, Hakka
Audio RecordingsStory of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project ...
Film / VideoJesus Film: view in Chinese, Hakka
Mobile AppDownload Audio Bible app as APK File fro ...
Text / Printed MatterBible: Chinese Union Version, Shangti Ed ...
Text / Printed MatterBible: Chinese Union Version, Shen Editi ...
Text / Printed MatterBible: Revised Chinese Union Version, Tr ...
Text / Printed MatterBible: 新譯本(繁體字版)
Text / Printed MatterOnline Bible text (Scripture Earth)
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Data Notes
Data Sources

Han Chinese, Hakka in Malaysia

Global                 Global
  Affinity Bloc             Global  
People Cluster
    Chinese     Asia, Southeast    
      Han Chinese, Hakka Malaysia    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Han Chinese, Hakka in Malaysia          
      Religion Language  
      Ethnic Religions     Chinese, Hakka  
    All Religions                              

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