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Khasonke in Gambia

Khasonke

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Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
2,300 Xaasongaxango Islam 0.11 % 0.00 %   

Khasonke in Gambia

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Introduction / History
The Khassonke ethnicity has been identified historically as the kingdom Khasso which opposed the advancement of the kingdom of Kaarta Bamanan led by Deniba Bo, to the years 1758-1761.

Where are they located?
The ethnic origins of the settlements are located in the Mande (Malinke) communities among or along the territories that were Sarakole (Soninke), specifically on the north bank of the river Senegal between Kita and Kayes, in the period of expansion the kingdom of Mali, which began after 1235 to 1255 during the administration of the first emperor, Soundiata.

What are their lives like?
Mande communities began a process of notable ethnic mixing with the Peulh (Fulani), a people group composed of nomadic groups from Ethiopia. The process began when the Mande gave their daughters in marriage. Mothers taught their children to speak in language sent, and the influence of the father tongue Peulh language was taking different phonetic forms. Over time the words were set in well-defined sounds, while different from the Mande and Peulh. In light of this language they developed practices and beliefs that were differentiated from other neighboring ethnic groups: Sarakole, Bamanan and Peulh in what is now known as the region of Kayes, Mali.

According to Bamba Keita, development of the Khassonke language is: first the Sarakole language, then the Malinke language developed from Sarakole, then the Khassonke language with influence from Peul.

The basic diet in ancient times was based on millet, fonio, native rice, goat, lamb, beef and fresh or smoked fish. Since the introduction of maize and peanuts from America, corn is the primary product to be harvested, followed by millet and peanuts. Peanuts (arachide) are almost always present in the diet of the poor and the rich.

Depending on the area (near or far from the river or the mountains) and the number of family members, each family may or may not have cattle and sheep, and access to gardens or orchards. The lower the number of members, the less probability they will have of owning a garden. The Khassonke are mostly farmers. The richest are devoted to livestock graze if they have someone to care for them (family or hired). The poor or moderately rich send their young children to seek work after harvest to cover what they lack.

After November the Peul pastoralists arrive and some families have agreements with these to corral their cattle in the fields, so that when the period of sowing comes, the ground is properly fertilized. This often happens naturally because there are usually family ties between them.

Socially one can identify in a village the noble families, the founders of the village or older families, the Imam, the Marabou and the rich. Jeli castes (griots), forgeron and slave. The three in turn and in the absence of any of these roles meet protocol in marriage ceremonies, baptisms, deaths, and businesses. Although a slave-class family can become wealthier than the nobles, not lose the social role assigned by the local community. But in the major cities these roles are not necessarily represented.

Presently, in the area close between Mahina and Diamou, there are enclave communities of Sarakole Bamanan who have given their children to marry Khassonkes who have similar habits and language. They have no qualms in saying that they are Khassonke. Mr. Sacko (an obvious Sarakole family name) was a promoter of Khassonke culture who died in 2011 in Kayes. The last names Traore, Diara (Bamanan) and Dembele (Mianka) have been assimilated as Khassonke. It was common previously for them to have Peulh or Malinke surnames.

Currently, in areas of high influence by the Bamanan language, Khassonke is only spoken in the home. This is due to two factors: First, Bamanan is spoken natively nationwide. It is the lingua franca. Second, there is a Khassonke self-esteem problem that comes from the cultural bias against this new neighboring tribe. This means that in this region of Mali, the uneducated do not consider them a people group because they did not exist there previously, regardless of the fact that they do exist there today. So to deny their existence invented stories of dishonest and malignant behavior that surely only the Khassonke could commit. That's a half truth, for the same behaviors were practiced by the group making the accusations.

What are their beliefs?
The religion of the Khassonke is linked with a popular Islam, mixed with animism. This is more common in rural areas. There are two points where Christianity is noted among the Khassonke: in Kakoulou near Medine in the Circle of Kayes there is a Catholic church and in Ousoubiagna Bafoulabe Circle, a Norwegian Lutheran Protestant church: a mother church and three annexes at three other locations, excluding Bafoulabe church. There are other points of Christian witness, but are still in an embryonic state.

There is a Khassonke New Testament, prepared by the Norwegian Mission and published by the Bible Alliance, Genesis, Ruth and Jonah are in process.

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Country: Gambia
Continent: Africa
Region: Africa, West and Central
10/40 Window: Yes
   
 
Maps
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Linguistic Map:Ethnologue language map
 
  Peoples [3]
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People Name in Country: Khasonke
People Name General: Khasonke
Alternate People Names:
KasonkeXasonke
ROP3 Code: 104921
Joshua Project People ID: 12655
Indigenous: No
Population in Country: 2,300
Population all Countries: 853,000
Least-Reached: Yes
   
 
Affinity Bloc: Sub-Saharan Peoples
People Cluster: Malinke
People Name General: Khasonke
Ethnic Code: NAB63e
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
   
 
Language
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Primary Language: Xaasongaxango (2,300 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): kao    Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
   
 
Religion [4]
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Primary Religion: Islam
Major Religions:
Buddhism0.00 % 
Christianity0.11 %(Evangelical: 0.00 %)
Ethnic Religions5.00 % 
Hinduism0.00 % 
Islam94.90 % 
Non-Religious0.00 % 
Other / Small0.00 % 
Unknown0.00 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent30.00 %
Protestant20.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic50.00 %
 
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
   
 
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Few evangelicals and few who claim to be Christians. Little, if any, history of Christianity.
Least-Reached: Yes
 
 
Bible Translation Status
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Bible Portions: 1997
New Testament:
2008Audio
Complete Bible: None Reported
Possible Bible Sources: Forum of Bible Agencies
 World Bible Finder
 World Christian Resource Directory
 Gospel Go
 
 
Ministry Resources [7]
Audio RecordingsMegaVoice Audio Bible and Stories
Audio RecordingsAudio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio RecordingsOnline New Testament (FCBH)
Film / VideoJesus Film: view in Xaasongaxango
 
 
Ministry Activity
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Data Notes
Data Sources
 
 

Khasonke in Gambia

Peoples
               
Geographic
Global                 Global
           
  Affinity Bloc             Global  
           
   
People Cluster
       
Region
   
    Malinke     Africa, West and Central    
     
People-Group-Across-Countries
   
Country
   
      Khasonke Gambia    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Khasonke in Gambia          
      Religion Language  
      Islam     Xaasongaxango  
    Global    
Language
 
    All Religions                              
   
Religion
                             

Direct link:  http://legacy.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=12655&rog3=GA