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Thangal in India



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Map source: Omid / Joshua Project
Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
4,000 Naga, Thangal Christianity 97.62 % Unknown No No   

Thangal in India

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Introduction / History
The Thangkhal tribe is one of the 'Chin-Kuki-Mizo-Zomi' sub-family of Tibeto-Burman stock. The word 'Thangkhal' derived from two syllables, 'Thaang' (a hilly region), while 'Khalh' (a dense form of fog). The Thangkhal people have a peculiar type of dialect called 'Thangkhal Haam'. Their dialect is closely related to Paite, Tedim and Zou tribes. Yet, neither of them is inclusive of the other. They were also called 'Zomi'in earlier times.

One of the earliest homes of the Thangkhals is 'Taitam' , which is somewhere in Asia. Literarily, the word 'Taitam' means 'a numerous runners or escaped peoples'. The Thangkhals settled in this village for few decades. After many years, they settled at 'Mul-laam' in the southern hills of Churachandpur in Manipur. The Thangkhals practised a common dialect, culture, custom and tradition from time immemorial. The traditional shawls includes- 'Puanlaisan (Red Woven Shawl)', 'Puandum (a mixed-textured of White, Green and Red Colour Shawl)' which is their typical tribal identities. The Thangkhal's traditional shawls were called 'Guungaal Puan' as they settled near the river Guun. Moreover, the Thangkhal dialects such as Valong, Vevaw, Tazen Aw and Niaknuak were one of the fewer words found in other's dialect. These words have its uniqueness and speciality, so much so that it could easily identified the Thangkhals from the neighbouring communities.

In 1956-57, the Thangkhals sought tribal recognition from the Government. At that time the polpulation was about 8,000-10,000. Failure to be recognized as a tribe has adversely affected Thangkhal society till today. Thus the Thangkhal tribe is on the overge of extinction. Now as per TBC Cenus, the population figure is roughly 2000 (two thousand). Though the Thangkhals fulfill all the necessary criteria for Tribe Recognisation, they could not achieve the status so far. Further, the Thangkhals does not want their dialect, custom, traditions and their culture to vanish. They want to preserve 'Thangkhal Dialect' which is the sole identity of the Thangkhal peoples.

Where are they located?
The Thangkhals were mainly present in Churachandpur Distirct in Manipur state. They also live in Lamzang, Phaibem, Lamka, Imphal, Saitual, Lawngtlai, Aizawl (Mizoram), Shillong, Haryana, Delhi, Tamu, Kahgen, Kalemyo and Rangoon (Myanmmar).

The Thangkhals usually celebrated great festivals such as Miim Kut, Taang Kut, Khaal Kut, Sa-Aih, Gaal-Aih and Khuadou Pawi in different occasions with significant meanings. Hunting was the favourite past-time of the Thangkhals in earlier times. 'Head-Hunting' is the considered to be the bravest achievement in life. The local rice-beer, 'Zu-Pi' is the common drinks of the Thangkhals.

What are their lives like?
The livelihood of Thangkhals mainly depends on agriculture. The literacy percentage is very low among the Thangkhals. Most of the older men and women were totally illiterate. The lifestyle is very basic and unhygienic, too. But, Christiantiy has much transformed the Thangkhal society into this stage. They lived on wooden houses and bamboo house. The only means of earning is cutting woods and collecting firewoods. The people were friendly and hospitable.

What are their beliefs?
In regards to religion, the Thangkhals were 'Animism'. Their traditional religion is 'Law-Ki', in which the 'Priest' performed all the religious rites and rituals. Blood sacrifices of animals and fowls were predominant in the society. According to the Thangkhals, there exists two supreme god, namely, 'Lung-Zai' (= the good god) and 'Zii-Maang'(=the evil). Some other evil spirit includes Dawi, Kaau, Sihkha, Thadam, Khawhaang(Misau), Keuhthang, Tomnu, and Pheisam. They also believed that after death, souls travels towards the destiny land called 'Leeng-Vaan', where there is no pain nor sorrow. In this place, all the souls turn into fleas and flew away forever.

On March 7, 1929 a man named Thawngluan, a Pastor of Convention Church (Now EBCC) brought the Gospel into the Thangkhal's land at a village called "Khajang". In his initial attempts, he failed many times due to being vehemently opposed by the Thangkhals. This old man, who preached the Gospel is considered as 'Bad Omen' by the Thangkhals. Thus, the Thangkhals tortured the missionary mercilessly. He is not allowed to enter any village of the Thangkhal. Later on, the villagers came to realize his kindness and love. The Village Chief, Pu Ulchin became the first to received Baptism from Thawngluan. In fact, he was the first Christian among the Thangkhals. Gradually, the Thangkhal professed Christianity as their religion. The Christians were called as 'Tapidaw', which means 'Believers" or "Followers of Christ"

Unfortunately, Pu Thawngluan died on July 2, 1983. That was the day the 'Great Tears of Thangkhals', who mourned for their beloved missionary. Thus, the Thangkhals called 'Thawngluan' the 'Thangkhal Missionary' - the undying name that lies in the hearts of the Thangkhal. The Thangkhals from different denominations collectively formed a separate Church, known as 'Thangkhal Christian Association' on April 4, 1981 at M. Tanglian village. In 2004, Thangkhal Christian Association(TCA) affiliated 'IFCA-I'. The first Christian song book 'Pasian it La' was published in 1982.

What are their needs?
1) Church Song Book in Thangkhal dialect.
2) Head Quarter Building
3) Central Church
4) Sponsors for theological studies

Prayer Points
* To get Tribe Recognisation at the earliest, otherwise the Thangkhals will become extinct.
* To safeguard the Church and its members.
* To pray for the Thangkhal so that they would not be scattered any more.
* To have more missionary fields

View Thangal in all countries.

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Country: India
Continent: Asia
Region: Asia, South
Persecution Rank:10 (Only top 50 ranked, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
10/40 Window: Yes
Population in Country:4,000
Largest States:
Manipur (4,000)
Total States on file:1
   
 
Maps
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Ethnolinguistic Map:University of Texas or other map
 
  Peoples [3]
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People Name in Country: Thangal
People Name General: Thangal
Alternate People Names:
KoiraoThangkhal
तंगाल
ROP3 Code: 112555
Joshua Project People ID: 17192
Indigenous: Yes
Population in Country: 4,000
Population all Countries: 4,000
Least-Reached: No
   
 
Affinity Bloc: South Asian Peoples
People Cluster: South Asia Tribal - Other
People Name General: Thangal
Ethnic Code: MSY50p
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
   
 
Language
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Primary Language: Naga, Thangal (3,800 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): nki    Ethnologue Listing
Secondary Languages:
Kom (40)Hmar (20)
Naga, Mao (20)Chin, Thado (20)
Anal (Unknown)Vaiphei (Unknown)
Korku (Unknown)Mizo (Unknown)
Naga, Inpui: Naga, Kabui (Unknown)Meitei (Unknown)
Note: Only 10 largest secondary languages listed
Total Languages: 15
   
 
Religion [4]
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Primary Religion: Christianity
Major Religions:
Buddhism0.28 % 
Christianity97.62 %(Evangelical: Data not available)
Ethnic Religions0.00 % 
Hinduism0.26 % 
Islam0.85 % 
Non-Religious0.00 % 
Other / Small0.10 % 
Unknown0.90 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent0.00 %
Protestant0.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic0.00 %
 
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
   
 
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Evangelicals have a larger relative representation among all who claim to be Christians.
Least-Reached: No
 
 
Bible Translation Status
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Bible Portions: Yes
New Testament:
2004
Complete Bible: None Reported
Possible Bible Sources: Forum of Bible Agencies
 World Bible Finder
 World Christian Resource Directory
 Gospel Go
 
 
Ministry Resources [7]
Audio RecordingsMegaVoice Audio Bible and Stories
Audio RecordingsAudio Bible teaching (GRN)
Text / Printed MatterBible: Thangkhal - Thangal Naga
 
 
Ministry Activity
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Data Notes
Data Sources
 
 

Thangal in India

Peoples
               
Geographic
Global                 Global
           
  Affinity Bloc             Global  
           
   
People Cluster
       
Region
   
    South Asia Tribal - Other     Asia, South    
     
People-Group-Across-Countries
   
Country
   
      Thangal India    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Thangal in India          
      Religion Language  
      Christianity     Naga, Thangal  
    Global    
Language
 
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Direct link:  http://legacy.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=17192&rog3=IN