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Enu in China


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Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
27,000 Enu Ethnic Religions 2.90 % 2.87 % No No   

Enu in China

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The Enu, who are officially part of the Hani nationality, are also known as the Ximeluo in China. The "Si-mou-lou" were first mentioned in a 1903 survey of Yunnan's ethnic composition. Missionary John Kuhn, in his 1945 tribal survey of Yunnan, listed the "Simoulu" as living at "Ning Erh and Qingku." Qingku is the old spelling for today's Jinggu County, in Simao Prefecture.

By the 1960s the Enu living near Chinese towns and cities had already begun the gradual process of assimilation. Today, only those living in more remote locations retain their ethnicity and language. The demise of the Enu as a distinct people group may have been a contributing factor in the Chinese government's decision not to grant them status as a separate minority.

Most Enu live in simple homes constructed of wood and thatched roofs. Most customs and ceremonies of the Enu now closely mirror that of the dominant Han Chinese. Earlier in the twentieth century, however, they still retained many unique customs that reflected their animistic beliefs. In one sacrifice, they spread the hide of a bull over a wooden frame, under which family leaders from feuding sides would drink the bull's blood and take a peace oath. If either party broke this oath, its members would meet the same fate as the slaughtered animal.

Most Enu people are animists, especially the elderly, who continue to offer prayers and burn incense before spirit and ancestral altars. The younger generation reluctantly continue the practices of their parents out of respect for their forefathers.

There are a small number of scattered Enu Christians, including some who attend a church consisting of people from nine different minority groups in Mengla County near the Laos border. Overall, however, southern Yunnan has been woefully neglected by the scouts of Christianity. Lottie Moon, a Baptist missionary, was disturbed by the lack of interest in China's lost. She bluntly stated, "It is odd that a million Baptists of the south can furnish only three men for all China. ... I wonder how these things look in heaven. They certainly look very queer in China."

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Country: China
Continent: Asia
Region: Asia, Northeast
Persecution Rank:27 (Only top 50 ranked, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
10/40 Window: Yes
Total Provinces on file:1
Location in Country:More than 20,000 people belonging to a little-known ethnic group, the Enu, live in several counties of southern Yunnan Province. They are spread from Jinggu County in Simao Prefecture as far south as Mengla County in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, near the China-Laos border. The center of the Enu people could be placed at Tayisai District in Mojiang County. In most locations the Enu do not have their own villages; rather, they live in mixed communities with people from other nationalities.
(Source: Operation China, 2000)
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Ethnolinguistic Map:University of Texas or other map
Linguistic Map:Ethnologue language map
  Peoples [3]
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People Name in Country: Enu
People Name General: Enu
Alternate People Names:
Yayisai Enu
ROP3 Code: 114050
Joshua Project People ID: 18450
Indigenous: Yes
Population in Country: 27,000
Population all Countries: 27,000
Least-Reached: No
Affinity Bloc: Tibetan-Himalayan Peoples
People Cluster: Hani
People Name General: Enu
Ethnic Code: MSY50i
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
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Primary Language: Enu (27,000 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): enu    Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Religion [4]
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Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions
Major Religions:
Buddhism0.00 % 
Christianity2.90 %(Evangelical: 2.87 %)
Ethnic Religions96.60 % 
Hinduism0.00 % 
Islam0.00 % 
Non-Religious0.00 % 
Other / Small0.50 % 
Unknown0.00 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent100.00 %
Protestant0.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic0.00 %
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Evangelicals have a modest presence.
Least-Reached: No
Bible Translation Status
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Bible Portions: Help start a Bible Translation
New Testament: None Reported
Complete Bible: None Reported
Ministry Resources [7]
None Reported
Ministry Activity
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Data Notes
Data Sources

Enu in China

Global                 Global
  Affinity Bloc             Global  
People Cluster
    Hani     Asia, Northeast    
      Enu China    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Enu in China          
      Religion Language  
      Ethnic Religions     Enu  
    All Religions                              

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