Introduction / History
The name "Bania" is derived from Vaniji, which means "trader" in Sanskrit, an ancient South Asian language. The Khedayata Bania are a sub-group of the large Bania peoples who live across India. Their original family is said to have stemmed from the village of Khadat in Gujarat, India. A much smaller population of Khedayata lives in Pakistan. Many Hindus in Pakistan moved to India during the 1947 Partition of India. Many Muslims migrated to Pakistan at the same time.
Of the four major varnas (caste clusters of Hinduism), Banias are in the third one, the Vaishyas. This caste cluster has always been about trade, business, and money lending. They were usually traders of grain and spices throughout history. Since Pakistan is primarily a Muslim nation, the Hindu caste system is not as influential as it is in India.
Despite their high incomes, the Banias have only modest status in the Hindu caste pyramid. The Bania often resent the higher two varnas, the Brahmins and the Kshatriyas. Thus, Banias have often been leaders in caste reform movements. Mahatma Gandhi is one example, but there have been many others throughout India's long history.
Most Khedayata Bania in Pakistan speak Sindhi as their first language. Bania are generally well-educated and also speak English and Urdu.
What are their lives like?
Members of the Bania caste today are among the wealthiest people in India and Pakistan. They are still involved with businesses and money lending. A Bania might be the proud owner of a giant business, a small one, or he might be working in a bank. He might even own the bank. Other Banias work in government ministries or as lawyers, judges, teachers, scholars, stockbrokers or engineers.
Bania are often resented by other people because they lend much needed money at higher interest rates. A pre-literate farmer might take a loan from a Bania only to find that a high percentage of his harvest will be taken away as interest. Customers often must put up their land and farms for collateral in case they cannot pay back their loans.
Fathers pass business skills to their sons. Bania children learn early to "never give; always bargain and make money." From an early age children are drilled in math and detailed calculations with the end purpose of winning in money transactions.. Khedayata Bania parents strongly encourage their children, especially the boys, to obtain graduate degrees related to business.
Monogamy or marriage to one spouse is the norm among Bania communities.
What are their beliefs?
Khedayata Bania people in Pakistan practice Hinduism, the ancient religion of India. Hinduism is a catch-all phrase for the local religions of South Asia, so it is very diverse. At the popular level, Hindus worship and serve the gods of the Hindu pantheon. They visit Hindu temples and offer prayers, food, flowers, and incense to their gods in hopes of gaining protection and benefits. They do not have a personal or familial relationship with their gods like Christians or Jews. There are other Hindus who are much more philosophical, especially among the Brahmins.
Almost all Hindus participate in yearly celebrations like Holi, the festival of colors and the start of spring / Diwali, the festival of lights / Navratri, the celebration of autumn / and Rama Navami, Rama's birthday.
There are few if any believers among the Bania community of Pakistan.
What are their needs?
The Khedayata Bania of Pakistan need to understand that material wealth will not bring the peace of mind and purpose for living that can only come from Jesus Christ. Bania need to see that they are sinners before the holy God of the Bible and that they need a Savior.
Pray that the veil of deception will be lifted from the eyes of the Khedayata Banias and that they will see that the only true wealth is the spiritual riches gained through a loving relationship with Jesus Christ.
Pray that Christ's disciples will be called to work among the Khedayata Bania of Pakistan and share Christ in a culturally relevant way.
Pray that the leaders of the Bania in Pakistan would be led to read the Bible and investigate the claims of Jesus Christ.
Pray for a disciple making movement to emerge among every Bania community in this decade.
ReferencesView Bania Khedayata in all countries.