Introduction / History The friendly Hmong tribes (also known as the Miao) originated in China. However, during the 1800s, many immigrated to Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar. Over the years, they gradually expanded into approximately seventy to eighty separate groups, each with its own dialect, style of dress, and customs.
Today, there are about one million Hmong speakers living in China. The five Hmong groups covered in this profile are spread throughout the mountains of southern China, primarily in the central and southwestern parts of the Guizhou province. They include the Luopohe, Central Mashan, Chonganjian, Southwestern Huishui, and Western Mashan. Their language forms part of the Western branch of the Miao languages.
The Hmong have a long history of resistance to the Chinese imperial authorities and endeavor to live separately from the Han Chinese, who called them "barbarians" and "dogs." For centuries, the Chinese have attempted to subjugate the Hmong. These attempts have instilled a quest for freedom deep within the hearts of the Hmong.
What are their lives like? The Hmong live in villages nestled high in the rocky mountain areas. Some are located several days walk from the nearest road. The Hmong economy is based on farming and raising draft animals such as cows or buffalo. The Hmong generally use the "slash and burn" method of agriculture on the mountain slopes. Those who live in the lower areas cultivate dry rice and maize. They also grow opium poppies as a cash crop. Those living at higher altitudes grow maize, millet, or buckwheat rather than rice. The children work alongside their parents in the fields.
The Hmong do not live with other ethnic groups, but have their own, separate villages. Divination is used to determine the site of each new settlement. This ensures that the villagers will live in harmony with the spirits that surround them. A typical settlement contains from seven to fifty households arranged in a horseshoe pattern. The villages are preferably sheltered by the forest and situated near a good water source.
Within the village, the site for each house is chosen with great care, since the location must be acceptable to the ancestral spirits. Houses are usually built directly on the ground rather than on stilts. In some parts of China, the Hmong live in houses made of adobe or stone, similar to the homes of the Chinese. Poorer families construct their houses out of pieces of split bamboo and rough matting. Each home contains at least one altar for the ancestral spirits. Houses are never built in a way that would hinder a spirit from freely entering the door and going to the altar. Every house must face downhill, and no two houses may be in direct line with each other, since this might obstruct the pathway of the spirits.
Hmong society is divided into a number of patrilineal clans, which means that the line of descent is traced through the males. These clans freely intermarry. Polygyny (having multiple wives) is permitted, although only the wealthiest men can afford to have second wives. Courtship is one of the main themes of the numerous Hmong festivals. Young couples often sing love songs to each other and exchange small gifts. Although arranged marriages are becoming more common, young people are still free to select their own mates. A newlywed couple usually lives with the groom's family until the birth of their first child. At that time, the young couple moves into their own home.
Among the five Hmong groups discussed, the most important social units are the family and the clan (extended family). Within the extended family, the oldest male has virtually unlimited authority. Some households are nuclear, while others are extended, ranging from one to twenty-five members.
The Hmong are generally small in stature, kind, hospitable, and lovable. They are well known for their songs and dances. Although they have no full-time craftsmen, they are famous for their silver work, embroidery, and intricate needlework.
What are their beliefs? The Hmong practice their own ethnic religion, which involves the worship of demons, spirits of nature, and ancestral spirits. There are many "household spirits," which they believe protect them from disease and death, and watch over their crops, money, and livestock. These spirits are appeased through animal sacrifices and the burning of "paper money." Every village has at least one Shaman (witchdoctor) who is used to exorcise evil spirits.
What are their needs? Almost all activities of the Hmong are regulated by customs and taboos. They believe that their surroundings are inhabited by spirits. They are therefore always on guard against the evil spirits, avoiding activities that might anger them. Prescribed methods and procedures govern everything from individual behavior to the locations of their homes and villages.
The majority of the Hmong have not heard a clear presentation of the Gospel. Witness to them is difficult, however, because missionary activity in China is currently restricted. Prayer is the key to seeing them reached with the Gospel that can truly set them free!
Prayer Points * Pray that the doors of China will soon be open to the preaching of the Gospel.
* Ask God to send forth loving Chinese Christians to minister the love of Jesus to the Hmong.
* Pray for the salvation of key Hmong leaders who will boldly declare the Gospel among their own people.
* Pray that missions organizations and churches will accept the challenge of adopting and reaching the Hmong.
* Ask God to raise up teams of intercessors who will faithfully stand in the gap for the Hmong.
* Ask the Lord to bring forth many fellowships of believers among the Hmong for the glory of His name! * Pray for translation of the Bible to begin in this people group's primary language. * Pray for the availability of the Jesus Film in the primary language of this people.
Approximately 77,000 speakers of the Luobohe (Luobo River) Miao language live in southern China. They inhabit parts of Fuquan, Weng'an, Guiding, Longli, Kaiyang, and Kaili counties in central Guizhou Province. Visitors to the region are often overwhelmed at the enormous variety of different Miao subgroups. "Along the roads of central Guizhou, one cannot fail to notice a great variety of Miao. Every 50 kilometers or so we found that the women's dress and appearance varied. There were those with long skirts, those with short skirts, hair done in a knot, hair done in a more elaborate coiffure." (Source: Operation China, 2000)