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Ghao-Xong, Eastern in China

Ghao-Xong, Eastern

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Ghao-Xong, Eastern in China map
Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
137,000 Miao, Eastern Xiangxi Ethnic Religions 3.50 % 0.97 % No No   

Ghao-Xong, Eastern in China

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Ghao-Xong is the autonym of this group, who have officially been included under the Miao nationality in China. The Ghao-Xong were labeled Red Miao by the early missionaries. They have also been called Huayuan Miao and Northern Miao.

During the Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) the Ghao-Xong staged 112 wars to save their tribal lands and preserve their way of life. Ralph Covell notes, "The Miao [Ghao-Xong] people in Hunan seem to have been badly oppressed by the Chinese over a long period of time, but remained more independent in spirit than those in Guizhou and Yunnan. This contributed to their reluctance to adopt a new faith."

For centuries the Ghao-Xong have been "growing mulberries and raising silkworms, spinning and weaving, making papercuts and, of course, embroidering." Many Ghao- Xong festivals feature music played on the suona horn and on drums.

The Ghao-Xong have the custom of worshiping Pan Hu, the dragon-dog they claim as their ancestor. Today the Ghao-Xong of Maxiang County in Hunan have a carved stone tablet inscribed "for sacrificing to Great King Pan Hu" and topped by two dragon heads. Certain kinds of trees are also worshiped as deities. In many villages the front door of a family's home is considered a god. The doors in these villages are worshiped annually in a ceremony where a pig is sacrificed and the blood is sprinkled on the doorposts.

In the 1920s Father Theopane Maguire of the Catholic Passionist Fathers - based in Brighton, Massachusetts, USA - commenced work among the Ghao-Xong in three counties of Hunan Province. Their work, which was based in Yangshui County, suffered a setback when rebels killed three of the missionaries in 1929. By 1934 they had won 2,500 converts, but no record was made of how many were Ghao-Xong compared to Han Chinese. In 1946 Maguire was forced to concede, "Here are no startling mass conversions, no pilgrimages of the mighty to the feet of the crucified Christ, no peals of thunder to announce the herald of the Great King."

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Prayer Links
Global Prayer Digest: 2011-07-12
Global Prayer Digest: 2018-07-27
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Country: China
Continent: Asia
Region: Asia, Northeast
Persecution Rank:27 (Only top 50 ranked, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
10/40 Window: Yes
Total Provinces on file:3
Location in Country:Approximately 100,000 speakers of the Eastern Ghao-Xong language are found in China. Western Ghao-Xong is spoken by far greater numbers, claiming close to one million speakers. The Eastern Ghao-Xong inhabit the far northeastern extent of Miao territory in China, near the Xiang (Hunanese) Chinese. They are located in parts of Luxi, Jishou, Guzhang, and Longshan counties in northwest Hunan Province. Most of their villages are on the top of mountains where they are able to maintain their customs in privacy. A Miao proverb states, "Fish swim in water, birds fly in the air, Miao live on the mountains.
(Source: Operation China, 2000)
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Ethnolinguistic Map:University of Texas or other map
Linguistic Map:Ethnologue language map
  Peoples [3]
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People Name in Country: Ghao-Xong, Eastern
People Name General: Ghao-Xong, Eastern
Alternate People Names:
Ghao-Xong EasternHmong, Eastern Xiangxi
Miao, Xiangxi Eastern
ROP3 Code: 114068
Joshua Project People ID: 18465
Indigenous: Yes
Population in Country: 137,000
Population all Countries: 137,000
Least-Reached: Yes
Affinity Bloc: Southeast Asian Peoples
People Cluster: Miao / Hmong
People Name General: Ghao-Xong, Eastern
Ethnic Code: MSY47a
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
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Primary Language: Miao, Eastern Xiangxi (137,000 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): muq    Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Religion [4]
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Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions
Major Religions:
Buddhism0.00 % 
Christianity3.50 %(Evangelical: 0.97 %)
Ethnic Religions93.50 % 
Hinduism0.00 % 
Islam0.00 % 
Non-Religious3.00 % 
Other / Small0.00 % 
Unknown0.00 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent30.00 %
Protestant0.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic70.00 %
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Few evangelicals and few who claim to be Christians. Little, if any, history of Christianity.
Least-Reached: Yes
GSEC Status:Level 0   No evangelical Christians or churches. No access to major evangelical print, audio, visual, or human resources
Bible Translation Status
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Bible Portions: Help start a Bible Translation
New Testament: None Reported
Complete Bible: None Reported
Ministry Resources [7]
None Reported
Ministry Activity
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Description: Register your ministry activity among this people group. Contact the Adopt-A-People Clearinghouse and Unleashed for the Unreached to learn about others that might be focused on this people group.
Data Notes
Data Sources

Ghao-Xong, Eastern in China

Global                 Global
  Affinity Bloc             Global  
People Cluster
    Miao / Hmong     Asia, Northeast    
      Ghao-Xong, Eastern China    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Ghao-Xong, Eastern in China          
      Religion Language  
      Ethnic Religions     Miao, Eastern Xiangxi  
    All Religions                              

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