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Penghulu in Indonesia


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Penghulu in Indonesia map
Population [2] Language Religion % Christian % Evangl Online NT Jesus Film Progress
28,000 Minangkabau Islam 0.05 % 0.05 %   

Penghulu in Indonesia

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Introduction / History
The Penghulu tribe is one of the ethnic groups regarded as original inhabitants of the Jambi Province in Sumatra. They live in the Sarolangun Bangko regency, mainly in the Batang Asai, Ulu Tabir and Sungaimanau subdistricts. Some also live in the Bungo Tebo regency. It is thought that this group came from West Sumatra to Jambi in the 15th century. They came as gold seekers. They are believed to be part of the "Old Malays" due to their physical characteristics. On the whole, they tend to be shorter than other ethnic groups in the area, who belong to the "Recent Malay" ethnic groups. In accordance with the area they came from, their language is a mixture of the Minangkabau language and the Jambi Malay language.

What are their lives like?
Their main livelihood is cultivating rice paddies and non-irrigated fields. Besides planting rice, they also cultivate rubber, cinnamon and coffee. Some of the people have developed a livelihood by traditional gold mining. The main gold mining activity is around the Sungaimanau and Batang Asai areas. Other means of livelihood include gathering forest products, like wood and rattan. They also produce woven handicrafts consisting of balls, floor mats, baskets, bowls and winnowing trays. Additionally, the Penghulu also make metalwork handicrafts such as knives, axes, cleavers and adzes. One tradition important to the Penghulu is co-op group work, for example fellow villagers will help prepare or work a rice field at planting or harvest time. This kind of work involves almost every member of the village. Penghulu settlements are typically clustered along a road or riverbank. Homes are built very close together. In times past, these villages formed a tightknit community called a "marga". A marga was led by the village chief. The nuclear family is called a "kalbu". Many kalbu joined together form a clan, which is led by a Tua Tengganai (clan elder). A Tua Tengganai has the responsibility to supervise the members of his clan and resolve problems that arise among the clan members. The Penghulu are led by a board of elders (ninik mamak) with representatives from each extended family.

What are their beliefs?
Though in general the Penghulu are Muslims, they still cling to traditional animistic beliefs for everyday life. They believe that strong spirits inhabit sacred sites. Some are still in the habit of giving offerings to appease the spirits. Many people seek help from the shaman for daily needs like treating the sick or casting out evil spirits.

What are their needs?
The Penghulu need help in becoming better equipped to develop their natural resources (forestry as well as gold mining) so that the products can be processed in a way that yields the best balance of financial profit and social welfare. They also need capital to increase their agricultural yields. Educationally, the Penghulu need to increase their skills to support development of their area.

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Country: Indonesia
Continent: Asia
Region: Asia, Southeast
Persecution Rank:49 (Only top 50 ranked, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
10/40 Window: Yes
Location in Country:Widespread in the Indonesian Archipelago; west central Sumatra, Padang area. Nearly half live outside central Sumatra; South Sumatra, west coast Mukomuko area
(Source: Ethnologue 2016)
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Country Map:Political map
Ethnolinguistic Map:University of Texas or other map
Linguistic Map:Ethnologue language map
  Peoples [3]
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People Name in Country: Penghulu
People Name General: Penghulu
Alternate People Names:
ROP3 Code: 107973
Joshua Project People ID: 14362
Indigenous: Yes
Population in Country: 28,000
Population all Countries: 28,000
Least-Reached: Yes
Affinity Bloc: Malay Peoples
People Cluster: Melayu of Sumatra
People Name General: Penghulu
Ethnic Code: MSY44k
Ethnic Relationships: Affinity Bloc -> People Cluster -> Peoples Ethnicity Tree
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Primary Language: Minangkabau (28,000 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): min    Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Religion [4]
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Primary Religion: Islam
Major Religions:
Buddhism0.00 % 
Christianity0.05 %(Evangelical: 0.05 %)
Ethnic Religions0.00 % 
Hinduism0.00 % 
Islam99.95 % 
Non-Religious0.00 % 
Other / Small0.00 % 
Unknown0.00 % 
Christianity Segments:
Anglican0.00 %
Independent0.00 %
Protestant0.00 %
Orthodox0.00 %
Other Christian0.00 %
Roman Catholic0.00 %
(Evangelicals distributed across Christianity segments)
Progress Indicators [5]
Progress Scale[6]   Few evangelicals and few who claim to be Christians. Little, if any, history of Christianity.
Least-Reached: Yes
GSEC Status:Level 1   Less than 2% Evangelical. Some evangelical resources available, but no active church planting within past 2 years
Bible Translation Status
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Bible Portions: 1980-1990
New Testament:
Complete Bible: None Reported
Possible Bible Sources: Forum of Bible Agencies
 World Bible Finder
 World Christian Resource Directory
 Gospel Go
Ministry Resources [7]
Audio RecordingsMegaVoice Audio Bible and Stories
Audio RecordingsAudio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio RecordingsOnline New Testament (FCBH)
Audio RecordingsStory of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project ...
Film / VideoFinding True Peace
Film / Video / Animation
Film / VideoJesus Film: view in Minangkabau
GeneralMinangkabau - Virtual Prayer Walk
Text / Printed MatterBible: Today's Malay Version
Text / Printed MatterBible: Today's Malay Version with Deuter ...
Ministry Activity
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Data Notes
Data Sources

Penghulu in Indonesia

Global                 Global
  Affinity Bloc             Global  
People Cluster
    Melayu of Sumatra     Asia, Southeast    
      Penghulu Indonesia    
            People-by-Country (Profile)          
            Penghulu in Indonesia          
      Religion Language  
      Islam     Minangkabau  
    All Religions                              

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